In , HIV-2 was discovered which is very common in West Africa and has not shown any significant spread from there . Nigeria has the largest population in Africa with a population of over million and HIV prevalence of 4. It is estimated that 2. A more serious challenge today, is the growing infection rates among the adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa .
There is great concern about the spread of HIV epidemic in or within the adolescent population . According to Unuigbe et al.
HIV in pregnant women is an important public health concern. This was a cross-sectional, consecutive health-facility-based study.
In order to obtain a study sample representative of Rumuobiakani area of the state, pregnant women attending the attending Obio Cottage hospital in Rumuobioakani, Port Harcourt, Nigeria were selected. To further buttress this, it is one of the mostly utilized hospitals in Rivers State, Nigeria. Ethical considerations Ethical approval was also given by the management of Obio Cottage hospital. Written or oral informed consent was taken from the subjects before enrolment into the study.
The participants were assigned identification numbers and were assured that all information obtained would be treated with the utmost confidentiality and used solely for the purpose of this research. Patient Eligibility and Inclusion criteria Pregnant women who consented to participate were consecutively recruited for the study. The study was carried out according to ethical research standards. Study Population A total of two hundred consented pregnant women were enrolled in this study.
Of which, were in age groups years while 48 were in age groups years of age. Informed consent was obtained from each patients and relevant confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. Where n is the desired sample size, P is the expected prevalence in the target population, Q is 1-P, Z is 1. A P-value of 7. Hence, the estimated sample size was with an additional Sample Collection Questionnaires were given to the studied population who volunteer for the study.
Confidentiality as assured the targeted groups was maintained. The questionnaires administered included their demographic profile age, religion, marital status, and educational level , sexual history marital status, condom use and their HIV awareness level , awareness of existence of HIV, knowledge about management of HIV infection and non-sexual route of HIV transmission.
This information was obtained using coded questionnaires. The initial step was to explain in details the entire procedure of the study. All consented pregnant women in Obio Cottage Hospital that volunteered were then administered the coded questionnaires. This was followed by blood collection using sterile syringes which was later transferred into anticoagulant bottles.
The bottles were arranged in a collection bode and sent to the medical laboratory for HIV antibody screening. Privacy and confidential were observed as wells as strict aseptic measure. Two hundred blood samples were collected for this study. Venous blood was obtained into non-anticoagulated tubes. The samples were centrifuged at resolution per minutes rpm for 5 minutes to obtain sera.
Data analysis The prevalence for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies was calculated by using pregnant women with positive samples as numerator and the total numbers of pregnant women enrolled in this study were the denominator. The generated data were presented in descriptive statistics. Results Overall prevalence During the study, a total of two hundred samples were screened for antibodies of HIV. Distribution of HIV-1 and HIV-2 among infected pregnant women Socio-demographic data and seropositive outcome of pregnant women tested for anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies Table 2 shows the socio-demographic data and seropositive outcomes of pregnant women tested for anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies.
In all, It also showed that there was significant difference p 0. Socio-demographic data and seropositive outcome of pregnant women tested for anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies Behavioral characteristics and seropositive outcomes of pregnant women tested for anti-HIV-1 and-2 antibodies Table 3 shows the behavioral characteristics and seropositive outcomes of pregnant women tested for anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies.
HIV seropositivity significantly associated with behavioral variables such as had sex for commercial purpose before 8. Also from Table 3, Behavioral characteristics and seropositive outcomes of pregnant women tested for anti-HIV-1 and-2 antibodies 4.
Discussion The epidemic of AIDS causes by infection with HIV has remained a major public health problem globally, wreaking devastation on millions of families and communities. The overall prevalence of HIV in this study was 3. This prevalence rate is lower compared to that of National prevalence of 3. Other studies in West Africa show 0. The low prevalence 3. Different studies to determine the prevalence of HIV among different populations have been carried out.
A prevalence of A zero seroprevalence rate was reported for HIV among blood donors in Ibadan  and It is lower than the prevalence of 5. This finding also differs from the 6. It is also lower than the It is far lower than the This rate also differs from the 3.
It is higher than the 0. The study showed age-related differences p et al. The study by Middelkoop et al. However, this present study deviated from that of Okonko et al. This was also not in line with the findings of Alikor and Erhabor  and Sule et al. The study showed occupation-related differences p According to Kagimu et al. However, it is not clear whether those who are more religious and adhere to their religious practices have a lower HIV prevalence rate compared to those who do not .
The present study showed religion-related differences p It has been suggested by scholars that studies linking religiosity to serological markers of HIV infection are likely to increase understanding of the role of religion in HIV prevention [44, 45]. The finding of this study disagrees with Frank-Peterside et al. This is also lower than the 5. According to the level of education, the highest prevalence of HIV was recorded for participants that were illiterate.
This was closely followed by the less educated secondary. This disagrees with Frank-Peterside et al. A study by Buseri et al. Previous studies found that women with a low level of education were more likely to access antenatal care late or be unbooked.
Results obtained shows that the prevalence of HIV to be 3. This disagrees with the findings of Frank-Peterside et al. The possible explanation for this trend in prevalence might be due to other contributing factor such as multiple sex partner, pre-marital and extra-marital sexual contacts which were common in Port Harcourt [43, 46, 48].
This finding is similar to that of Mbakwem-Aniebo et al. However, the finding of this study agrees with Frank-Peterside et al. Previous studies have also documented that youths indulge in many of the behaviors that promote HIV transmission, including having sex with multiple partners , having unprotected sexual intercourse, and using drugs or alcohol during sex [48, ]. One hundred percent of the participants were aware of HIV.
This is in agreement with previous report by Mbakwem-Aniebo et al. It also corroborates previous findings by Orubuloye et al. Participants also agreed that to have sex with an infected partner could transmit the virus. While in that of Olowosegun et al. In this study, This trend is similar to the reports by Yahaya , Olowosegun et al. Most youths engaged in sex without proper protection and awareness about sexually transmitted infections .
Risk factors associated with HIV, such as sex with a number of partners, clearly exist among adolescents and young adults, including those on university campuses [48, ].
This study showed 4. However, reports have shown that there are missed reactions to condom use. Some say it takes the pleasure from sex while some admitted to having irritation from using it.
Others still feel it is better to protect one from being infected with HIV. Based on the results obtained from the study, it was observed that awareness about HIV among participants was limited to the sexual route of HIV transmission. Youths with a reasonable knowledge of HIV may not perceive themselves to be at risk and may continue to engage in high-risk behavior [48, ]. This calls for urgent and concerted efforts aimed at promoting behavioural, cultural and social changes that will reverse the current trend in the prevalence of HIV among the pregnant women.
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