Do people with bipolar have sex. Bipolar and Lying.



Do people with bipolar have sex

Do people with bipolar have sex

Signs and symptoms An lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania' Both mania and depression are characterized by disruptions in normal mood, psychomotor activity, circadian rhythm, and cognition.

Mania can present with varying levels of mood disturbance, ranging from euphoria that is associated with "classic mania" to dysphoria and irritability. The core symptom of mania involves an increase in energy of psychomotor activity. Mania can also present with increased self esteem or grandiosity, rapid speech, the subjective feeling of rapid thoughts, disinhibited social behavior, or impulsivity. Unlike mania, hypomania is not always associated with impaired functioning.

Hypomania may feel good to some persons who experience it, though most people who experience hypomania state that the stress of the experience is very painful. Even when family and friends recognize mood swings, the individual will often deny that anything is wrong.

These symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. A major depressive episode persists for at least two weeks, and may result in suicide if left untreated.

Mixed affective state In bipolar disorder, mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of both mania and depression occur simultaneously. Associated features of bipolar disorder Associated features are clinical phenomena that often accompany the disorder but are not part of the diagnostic criteria.

In adults with the condition, bipolar disorder is often accompanied by changes in cognitive processes and abilities. For bipolar disorder type I, the rate at which identical twins same genes will both have bipolar disorder type I concordance is estimated at around 40 percent, compared to about 5 percent in fraternal twins. There is overlap with major unipolar depression and if this is also counted in the co-twin the concordance with bipolar disorder rises to 67 percent in identical twins and 19 percent in fraternal twins.

Conditions like these and injuries include but are not limited to stroke , traumatic brain injury , HIV infection , multiple sclerosis , porphyria , and rarely temporal lobe epilepsy.

Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies in bipolar disorder report decreased volume in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex ACC , fronto-insular cortex , ventral prefrontal cortex, and claustrum. Increases have been reported in the volume of the lateral ventricles , globus pallidus , subgenual anterior cingulate , and amygdala as well as in the rates of deep white matter hyperintensities.

On the other hand, pretreatment hyperactivity in the amygdala is reduced post treatment but still increased relative to controls, suggesting that it is a trait marker. During attentional tasks and resting, mania is associated with decreased Orbitofrontal cortex activity, while depression is associated with increased resting metabolism. Consistent with affective disorders due to lesions, mania and depression are lateralized in ventral prefrontal cortex vPFC dysfunction, with depression primarily being associated with the left vPFC, and mania the right vPFC.

Abnormal vPFC activity, along with amygdala hyperactivity is found during euthymia as well as in healthy relatives of those with bipolar, indicating possible trait features.

There is evidence supporting an association between early-life stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPA axis leading to its over activation, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. This results in decreased dopamine transmission characteristic of the depressive phase. Increased dopaminergic activity has been hypothesized in manic states due to the ability of dopamine agonists to stimulate mania in people with bipolar disorder. Low plasma GABA levels on both sides of the mood spectrum have been found.

VMAT2 binding was found to be increased in one study of people with bipolar mania. In diagnosis, caregiver-scored rating scales, specifically the mother, has been found to be more accurate than teacher and youth report in predicting identifying youths with bipolar disorder. The ICD criteria are used more often in clinical settings outside of the U. Several rating scales for the screening and evaluation of bipolar disorder exist, [89] including the Bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale , Mood Disorder Questionnaire , the General Behavior Inventory and the Hypomania Checklist.

These disorders include schizophrenia , major depressive disorder, [91] attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. Neurologic diseases such as such as multiple sclerosis , complex partial seizures , strokes , brain tumors, Wilson disease , traumatic brain injury , Huntington's disease , and complex migraines can mimic features of bipolar disorder. Infectious causes of mania which may appear similar to bipolar mania include herpes encephalitis , HIV , influenza , or neurosyphilis.

The DSM-5 lists three specific subtypes: At least one manic episode is necessary to make the diagnosis; [98] depressive episodes are common in the vast majority of cases with bipolar disorder I, but are unnecessary for the diagnosis.

No manic episodes and one or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episode. A history of hypomanic episodes with periods of depression that do not meet criteria for major depressive episodes.

Individuals who have subthreshold symptoms that cause clinically significant distress or impairment, but do not meet full criteria for one of the three subtypes may be diagnosed with other specified or unspecified bipolar disorder. Other specified bipolar disorder is used when a clinician chooses to provide an explanation for why the full criteria were not met e. It is defined as having four or more mood disturbance episodes within a one-year span and is found in a significant proportion of individuals with bipolar disorder.

Treatment of bipolar disorder There are a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques used to treat bipolar disorder. Individuals may use self-help and pursue recovery. Hospitalization may be required especially with the manic episodes present in bipolar I. This can be voluntary or if mental health legislation allows and varying state-to-state regulations in the USA involuntary called civil or involuntary commitment. Long-term inpatient stays are now less common due to deinstitutionalization , although these can still occur.

These are sometimes referred to as partial-inpatient programs. Most studies have been based only on bipolar I, however, and treatment during the acute phase can be a particular challenge. A number of medications are used to treat bipolar disorder. These mood stabilizers are used for long-term mood stabilization but have not demonstrated the ability to quickly treat acute bipolar depression.

It is less effective in preventing relapse than lithium or valproate. In cases of comorbid ADHD and bipolar, stimulants may help improve both conditions. However, only a few small studies of variable quality have been published and there is not enough evidence to draw any firm conclusions. For women, better social functioning prior to developing bipolar disorder and being a parent are protective towards suicide attempts.

As a result, two-thirds of people with BD continue to experience impaired psychosocial functioning in between episodes even when their mood symptoms are in full remission.

Higher degrees of impairment correlate with the number of previous manic episodes and hospitalizations, and with the presence of psychotic symptoms. One third of people with BD remain unemployed for one year following a hospitalization for mania. Within two years, 72 percent achieved symptomatic recovery no symptoms at all and 43 percent achieved functional recovery regaining of prior occupational and residential status. However, 40 percent went on to experience a new episode of mania or depression within 2 years of syndromal recovery, and 19 percent switched phases without recovery.

Individuals whose bipolar disorder begins with a depressive or mixed affective episode seem to have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of suicide.

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Do people with bipolar have sex

Signs and symptoms An lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania' Both mania and depression are characterized by disruptions in normal mood, psychomotor activity, circadian rhythm, and cognition. Mania can present with varying levels of mood disturbance, ranging from euphoria that is associated with "classic mania" to dysphoria and irritability. The core symptom of mania involves an increase in energy of psychomotor activity. Mania can also present with increased self esteem or grandiosity, rapid speech, the subjective feeling of rapid thoughts, disinhibited social behavior, or impulsivity.

Unlike mania, hypomania is not always associated with impaired functioning. Hypomania may feel good to some persons who experience it, though most people who experience hypomania state that the stress of the experience is very painful. Even when family and friends recognize mood swings, the individual will often deny that anything is wrong. These symptoms include delusions and hallucinations.

A major depressive episode persists for at least two weeks, and may result in suicide if left untreated. Mixed affective state In bipolar disorder, mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of both mania and depression occur simultaneously. Associated features of bipolar disorder Associated features are clinical phenomena that often accompany the disorder but are not part of the diagnostic criteria.

In adults with the condition, bipolar disorder is often accompanied by changes in cognitive processes and abilities. For bipolar disorder type I, the rate at which identical twins same genes will both have bipolar disorder type I concordance is estimated at around 40 percent, compared to about 5 percent in fraternal twins.

There is overlap with major unipolar depression and if this is also counted in the co-twin the concordance with bipolar disorder rises to 67 percent in identical twins and 19 percent in fraternal twins. Conditions like these and injuries include but are not limited to stroke , traumatic brain injury , HIV infection , multiple sclerosis , porphyria , and rarely temporal lobe epilepsy. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies in bipolar disorder report decreased volume in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex ACC , fronto-insular cortex , ventral prefrontal cortex, and claustrum.

Increases have been reported in the volume of the lateral ventricles , globus pallidus , subgenual anterior cingulate , and amygdala as well as in the rates of deep white matter hyperintensities. On the other hand, pretreatment hyperactivity in the amygdala is reduced post treatment but still increased relative to controls, suggesting that it is a trait marker.

During attentional tasks and resting, mania is associated with decreased Orbitofrontal cortex activity, while depression is associated with increased resting metabolism. Consistent with affective disorders due to lesions, mania and depression are lateralized in ventral prefrontal cortex vPFC dysfunction, with depression primarily being associated with the left vPFC, and mania the right vPFC.

Abnormal vPFC activity, along with amygdala hyperactivity is found during euthymia as well as in healthy relatives of those with bipolar, indicating possible trait features. There is evidence supporting an association between early-life stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPA axis leading to its over activation, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. This results in decreased dopamine transmission characteristic of the depressive phase.

Increased dopaminergic activity has been hypothesized in manic states due to the ability of dopamine agonists to stimulate mania in people with bipolar disorder.

Low plasma GABA levels on both sides of the mood spectrum have been found. VMAT2 binding was found to be increased in one study of people with bipolar mania. In diagnosis, caregiver-scored rating scales, specifically the mother, has been found to be more accurate than teacher and youth report in predicting identifying youths with bipolar disorder.

The ICD criteria are used more often in clinical settings outside of the U. Several rating scales for the screening and evaluation of bipolar disorder exist, [89] including the Bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale , Mood Disorder Questionnaire , the General Behavior Inventory and the Hypomania Checklist. These disorders include schizophrenia , major depressive disorder, [91] attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder.

Neurologic diseases such as such as multiple sclerosis , complex partial seizures , strokes , brain tumors, Wilson disease , traumatic brain injury , Huntington's disease , and complex migraines can mimic features of bipolar disorder.

Infectious causes of mania which may appear similar to bipolar mania include herpes encephalitis , HIV , influenza , or neurosyphilis. The DSM-5 lists three specific subtypes: At least one manic episode is necessary to make the diagnosis; [98] depressive episodes are common in the vast majority of cases with bipolar disorder I, but are unnecessary for the diagnosis.

No manic episodes and one or more hypomanic episodes and one or more major depressive episode. A history of hypomanic episodes with periods of depression that do not meet criteria for major depressive episodes. Individuals who have subthreshold symptoms that cause clinically significant distress or impairment, but do not meet full criteria for one of the three subtypes may be diagnosed with other specified or unspecified bipolar disorder. Other specified bipolar disorder is used when a clinician chooses to provide an explanation for why the full criteria were not met e.

It is defined as having four or more mood disturbance episodes within a one-year span and is found in a significant proportion of individuals with bipolar disorder. Treatment of bipolar disorder There are a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques used to treat bipolar disorder.

Individuals may use self-help and pursue recovery. Hospitalization may be required especially with the manic episodes present in bipolar I. This can be voluntary or if mental health legislation allows and varying state-to-state regulations in the USA involuntary called civil or involuntary commitment. Long-term inpatient stays are now less common due to deinstitutionalization , although these can still occur. These are sometimes referred to as partial-inpatient programs.

Most studies have been based only on bipolar I, however, and treatment during the acute phase can be a particular challenge. A number of medications are used to treat bipolar disorder. These mood stabilizers are used for long-term mood stabilization but have not demonstrated the ability to quickly treat acute bipolar depression. It is less effective in preventing relapse than lithium or valproate. In cases of comorbid ADHD and bipolar, stimulants may help improve both conditions.

However, only a few small studies of variable quality have been published and there is not enough evidence to draw any firm conclusions. For women, better social functioning prior to developing bipolar disorder and being a parent are protective towards suicide attempts. As a result, two-thirds of people with BD continue to experience impaired psychosocial functioning in between episodes even when their mood symptoms are in full remission.

Higher degrees of impairment correlate with the number of previous manic episodes and hospitalizations, and with the presence of psychotic symptoms. One third of people with BD remain unemployed for one year following a hospitalization for mania. Within two years, 72 percent achieved symptomatic recovery no symptoms at all and 43 percent achieved functional recovery regaining of prior occupational and residential status.

However, 40 percent went on to experience a new episode of mania or depression within 2 years of syndromal recovery, and 19 percent switched phases without recovery. Individuals whose bipolar disorder begins with a depressive or mixed affective episode seem to have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of suicide.

Do people with bipolar have sex

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