Gonorrhea Like Chlamydia, gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that may not always cause signs and symptoms and can remain undiagnosed. Also similar to Chlamydia, gonorrhea can cause urethritis in men, leading to burning or pain on urination and discharge from the urethra.
Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, and when symptoms do occur, they develop about 4 to 8 days after contracting the infection. Gonorrhea can also cause infection in the rectum and in the throat. Moreover, it is possible for gonorrhea to spread within the body, causing symptoms like rash and joint pain.
Antibiotics, such as cefixime Suprax are typically used to treat gonorrhea, although other antibiotics have also been used. Treatment is often given that is also curative for Chlamydia infection, since these two infections frequently occur together. Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite. Most women and men who are infected do not have symptoms, and as with chlamydia and gonorrhea, may not know they are infected.
When the infection does cause symptoms, it typically results in urethritis, with itching or burning and discharge from the urethra.
Trichomonas infection can be cured with a single dose of antibiotic medication. Metronidazole and tinidazole are antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of trichomonas infection. Take the Quiz on STDs 4. Infection with the HIV virus can occur during sexual contact, by sharing needles, or from an infected pregnant woman to her baby.
The virus ultimately causes dysfunction of the body's immune system at a later time point. The average time from infection to immune suppression is 10 years. No specific symptoms signal HIV infection, but some people develop fever and a flu-like illness 2 to 4 weeks after they have contracted the virus. Once immune suppression is present, serious complications like unusual infections, certain cancers , and dementia may develop.
Numerous medications are available to help affected people manage the infection and delay or prevent progression of the illness.
Genital herpes The herpes simplex viruses HSVs cause painful blistering sores on sexually exposed areas of the body. They can be transmitted during any type of sexual contact. Even when symptoms have occurred in the past, it is possible to transmit the infection during any period in which symptoms are not present. The lesions caused by HSV typically take the form of painful blisters that eventually open, forming ulcers, and then crust over.
In men, the sores can be found on the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus, inside the urethra, or on the skin of the thighs. The first outbreak of HSV infection may be more severe than subsequent outbreaks and can be accompanied by fever and swollen lymph nodes. Different types of HPV exist and cause different conditions. Some HPVs cause common warts that are not STDs, and other types are spread during sexual activity and cause genital warts. Still other types are the cause of precancerous chances and cancers of the cervix in women.
Most people with HPV infection do not develop genital warts or cancers, and the body is often able to clear the infection on its own. When HPV causes genital warts in men , the lesions appear as soft, fleshy, raised bumps on the penis or anal area. Sometimes they may be larger and take on a cauliflower-like appearance. There is no cure for HPV infection, but it often resolves on its own. Treatments to destroy or remove genital warts are also available. Vaccines are available for boys and girls that confer immunity to the most common HPV types.
Hepatitis B and C Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are two viral diseases that can be transmitted by sexual contact. People with chronic hepatitis B are at increased risk for the development of liver cancer. There is a very effective vaccine available for the prevention of hepatitis B.
Treatment of acute hepatitis involves supportive care and rest, although those with chronic hepatitis may be treated with interferon or antiviral medications. Unlike HBV, HCV is rarely transmitted by sexual contact and is usually spread by contact with the blood of an infected person.
Still, it is possible to transmit this virus as a result of sexual contact. Most people infected with HCV have no symptoms, so a delayed or missed diagnosis is common.
There is also no vaccine available against HCV. Take the Quiz on STDs 8. Syphilis Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum bacteria. If not treated, the disease progresses through three phases and can also persist in a latent state. The initial manifestation is a painless ulcer known as a chancre at the site of sexual contact. The chancre develops 10 to 90 days after infection and resolves after 3 to 6 weeks.
Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, but if this first stage is untreated, secondary syphilis can develop. In secondary syphilis, there is spread of the disease to other organs, causing various symptoms that can include skin rash , swollen lymph nodes , arthritis , kidney disease , or liver problems.
After this stage, some people will have a latent infection for years, after which tertiary syphilis develops. Tertiary syphilis can cause different conditions including brain infection, the development of nodules known as gummas, aortic aneurysm , loss of sight, and deafness. Fortunately, syphilis is curable with proper antibiotic treatment. Zika virus The Zika virus has been associated with birth defects in babies born to infected mothers. Transmission of Zika virus occurs among humans by the bite of an infected vector mosquito.
However, sexual transmission of the Zika virus is also possible, and an infected individual may spread the virus to his or her sex partners. What tests diagnose STDs in men? Many STDs are diagnosed based upon the clinical history and characteristic physical findings.
Herpes and syphilis are two conditions that can produce identifiable signs and symptoms. Often the diagnosis of an infection depends upon identification of the organism. A number of different tests are available for STDs in men that are based either upon detection of the surface proteins of the organism or of the genetic material of the organism. These methods are more commonly used than the culture to identify sexually transmitted infections.
What is the treatment for STDs in men? Share Your Story STDs caused by bacteria -- Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis -- are typically curable with antibiotics. Trichomoniasis can be cured with effective medications that eliminate the parasite. There is no treatment for HPV infection, although it commonly does not cause problems.
Genital warts can be treated by destruction and removal. Antiviral drugs and interferon may be used to manage these long-term infections, but they do not cure the infection. Likewise, HIV treatment drugs can manage the infection, but they do not cure the it.
HSV infection persists for life, although antiviral drugs can help reduce the severity and frequency of outbreaks. What happens if a man does not receive treatment for an STD?
Can you die from an STD? When untreated, some treatable STDs can spread throughout the body, causing serious consequences. Gonorrhea and syphilis are examples of treatable conditions that can cause serious consequences if not treated. HIV infection causes immune suppression that can lead to death from cancers or rare infections, although treatments are available to postpone or delay the immunosuppressive actions of the virus.
Both hepatitis B and C can cause liver damage; however, it may cause liver damage that sometimes progresses to liver failure.
Herpes HPV infection persists throughout life, with the possibility of future outbreaks of the illness; however, there is no cure. Herpes HPV infection persists throughout life. There is no cure. How can a man prevent from becoming infected with an STDs?
Sometimes, STDs may affect areas not ordinarily covered by a condom during sexual activity. Prevention can also be difficult because many people will not show specific signs or symptoms of an STD even though they may be infected. While abstinence from sexual activity is the only absolute way to prevent STDs, limiting the number of sexual partners can help reduce risk of exposure to infections. Early diagnosis and recognition of infections as well as counseling about STDs and risk can help avoid further spread of infections.
Which specialties of doctors treat STDs in Men? STDs in men may be treated by primary care practitioners, including internists and family practitioners.
Urologists are physicians with specialized training in conditions involving the male reproductive system, and they may be involved in the care of STDs in men.