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Native american indian sex videos

Native american indian sex videos

Native American history The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian. Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional arts , folk literature , folklore , archaeology , and other sources. Powhatan village of SecotonPowhatan village of Secoton, colour engraving by Theodor de Bry, , after a watercolour drawing by John White, c.

As one would expect, indigenous American farmers living in stratified societies, such as the Natchez , engaged with Europeans differently than did those who relied on hunting and gathering, such as the Apache. Likewise, Spanish conquistadors were engaged in a fundamentally different kind of colonial enterprise than were their counterparts from France or England.

The sections below consider broad trends in Native American history from the late 15th century to the late 20th century. More-recent events are considered in the final part of this article, Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. North America and Europe circa The population of Native America Scholarly estimates of the pre-Columbian population of Northern America have differed by millions of individuals: In anthropologist James Mooney undertook the first thorough investigation of the problem.

He estimated the precontact population density of each culture area based on historical accounts and carrying capacity, an estimate of the number of people who could be supported by a given form of subsistence. Mooney concluded that approximately 1,, individuals lived in Northern America at the time of Columbian landfall. In ethnohistorian Henry Dobyns estimated that there were between 9,, and 12,, people north of the Rio Grande before contact; in he revised that number upward to 18,, people.

Dobyns was among the first scholars to seriously consider the effects of epidemic diseases on indigenous demographic change. He noted that, during the reliably recorded epidemics of the 19th century, introduced diseases such as smallpox had combined with various secondary effects i.

He then used this and other information to calculate from early census data backward to probable founding populations. Some of his critics fault Dobyns for the disjunctions between physical evidence and his results, as when the number of houses archaeologists find at a site suggests a smaller population than do his models of demographic recovery.

Others, including the historian David Henige, criticize some of the assumptions Dobyns made in his analyses. For instance, many early fur traders noted the approximate number of warriors fielded by a tribe but neglected to mention the size of the general population.

This group notes that severe epidemics of European diseases may have begun in North America in the late 10th or early 11th century, when the Norse briefly settled a region they called Vinland.

Yet another group of demographers protest that an emphasis on population loss obscures the resilience shown by indigenous peoples in the face of conquest. Most common, however, is a middle position that acknowledges that demographic models of 15th-century Native America must be treated with caution, while also accepting that the direct and indirect effects of the European conquest included extraordinary levels of indigenous mortality not only from introduced diseases but also from battles, slave raids, and—for those displaced by these events—starvation and exposure.

This perspective acknowledges both the resiliency of Native American peoples and cultures and the suffering they bore.

Native American ethnic and political diversity Determining the number of ethnic and political groups in pre-Columbian Northern America is also problematic, not least because definitions of what constitutes an ethnic group or a polity vary with the questions one seeks to answer. Ethnicity is most frequently equated with some aspect of language , while social or political organization can occur on a number of scales simultaneously. Thus, a given set of people might be defined as an ethnic group through their use of a common dialect or language even as they are recognized as members of nested polities such as a clan , a village, and a confederation.

Other factors, including geographic boundaries, a subsistence base that emphasized either foraging or farming, the presence or absence of a social or religious hierarchy , and the inclinations of colonial bureaucrats , among others, also affected ethnic and political classification; see Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band. The cross-cutting relationships between ethnicity and political organization are complex today and were equally so in the past.

And both the hypothetical Germanic speaker and the hypothetical Iroquoian speaker live or lived in nested polities or quasi-polities: Recognizing that it is difficult to determine precisely how many ethnic or political groups or polities were present in 15th-century Northern America, most researchers favour relative rather than specific quantification of these entities. The outstanding characteristic of North American Indian languages is their diversity—at contact Northern America was home to more than 50 language families comprising between and languages.

At the same moment in history, western Europe had only 2 language families Indo-European and Uralic and between 40 and 70 languages. In other words, if one follows scholarly conventions and defines ethnicity through language, Native America was vastly more diverse than Europe. Politically , most indigenous American groups used consensus-based forms of organization.

In such systems, leaders rose in response to a particular need rather than gaining some fixed degree of power. The Southeast Indians and the Northwest Coast Indians were exceptions to this general rule, as they most frequently lived in hierarchical societies with a clear chiefly class.

Regardless of the form of organization, however, indigenous American polities were quite independent when compared with European communities of similar size. European populations and polities Just as Native American experiences during the early colonial period must be framed by an understanding of indigenous demography, ethnic diversity , and political organization, so must they be contextualized by the social, economic, political, and religious changes that were taking place in Europe at the time.

These changes drove European expansionism and are often discussed as part of the centuries-long transition from feudalism to industrial capitalism see Western colonialism. Many scholars hold that the events of the early colonial period are inextricably linked to the epidemics of the Black Death , or bubonic plague , that struck Europe between and Perhaps 25 million people, about one-third of the population , died during this epidemic. The population did not return to preplague levels until the early s.

The intervening period was a time of severe labour shortages that enabled commoners to demand wages for their work. Standards of living increased dramatically for a few generations, and some peasants were even able to buy small farms. These were radical changes from the previous era, during which most people had been tied to the land and a lord through serfdom. These conflicts created intense local and regional hardship, as the roving brigands that constituted the military typically commandeered whatever they wanted from the civilian population.

In the theatres of war, troops were more or less free to take over private homes and to impress people into labour ; famine , rape , and murder were all too prevalent in these areas. Further, tax revenues could not easily be levied on devastated regions, even though continued military expenditures had begun to drain the treasuries of western Europe.

As treasuries were depleted, overseas trade beckoned. The Ottoman Empire controlled the overland routes from Europe to South Asia , with its markets of spices and other commercially lucrative goods.

Seeking to establish a sea route to the region, the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator sponsored expeditions down the Atlantic coast of Africa. Later expeditions attempted to reach the Indian Ocean , but they were severely tested by the rough seas at the Cape of Good Hope.

Christopher Columbus had been a member of several such voyages and proposed an alternative , transatlantic route; in he requested the sponsorship of John II , the king of Portugal , who refused to support an exploratory journey. Iberia was a hotbed of activity at the time. Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille had begun to unify their kingdoms through their marriage , but they were soon forced to resolve bitter challenges to their individual ascensions.

Eventually quelling civil war, the devout Roman Catholic sovereigns initiated the final phase of the Reconquista, pitting their forces against the last Moorish stronghold, Grenada. The city fell in January , an event Columbus reportedly witnessed.

The seemingly endless military and police actions to which Ferdinand and Isabella had been party had severely depleted their financial reserves.

Having lost so many of its best minds, Spain faced a very slow economic recovery, if it was to recover at all. Although Columbus did not find a route with which to sidestep Ottoman trade hegemony , his journey nonetheless opened the way to overseas wealth. Spain used American resources to restore its imperiled economy, a strategy that was soon adopted by the other maritime nations of Europe as well. Suspected Protestants being tortured as heretics during the Spanish Inquisition.

This situation continued into the 16th century, when at least four factors contributed to levels of inflation so high as to be unprecedented: Colonial exploration routes within Canada. Colonial exploration routes within the United States. European colonialism was thus begotten in a social climate fraught with war , religious intolerance, a dispossessed peasantry, and inflation.

Despite these commonalities, however, each of the countries that attempted to colonize North America in the 16th and 17th centuries—Spain, France, England, the Netherlands, and Sweden—had particular goals, methods, and geographic interests that played an important role in shaping Native American history. The first country to send large expeditions to the Americas, Spain focused its initial efforts on the conquest of the wealthy Aztec and Inca empires, which fell in and , respectively.

Immense quantities of precious metals were seized from these peoples and shipped to Spain; the initial influx of hard currency provided a period of fiscal relief, but the country suffered bankruptcy in the later 16th century and never fully recovered. The conquest of the Americas also provided overseas work for the men who had fought in the Reconquista , thus limiting the damage they might have inflicted if left unemployed in Iberia.

In lieu of pay or a pension , many conquistadors were provided with encomiendas , a form of vassal slavery in which a particular Indian population was granted to a Spaniard. The system alleviated demands on the treasury and also transplanted the Spanish social hierarchy to the colonies.

Encomiendas were gradually supplanted by haciendas —landed estates or plantations. However, this legal nicety did little to change conditions for the Indians living under Spanish rule. Having vanquished the indigenous nations of Mexico and Peru , the conquistadors turned their attention to Northern America. In the same year, Hernando de Soto was authorized to establish Spanish control of La Florida the southeastern United States and its residents; he rode out with more than conquistadors.

Both expeditions relied upon large complements of native labourers, who were forcibly impressed into service. Coronado, de Soto, and their troops destroyed communities that resisted their demands for tribute, women, supplies, and obeisance.

Concerted efforts at settlement north of Mexico began in in La Florida, with the founding of St. Although its explorers sighted the coast of California in , Spain did not colonize that area until the second part of the 18th century. Marriage between Spanish men and native women was acceptable, although concubinage was more common; intermarriage was effectively forbidden to the few Spanish women who lived in the colonies. After a few generations, a complex social order based on ancestry, land ownership , wealth , and noble titles had become entrenched in the Spanish colonies.

The Roman Catholic missionaries that accompanied Coronado and de Soto worked assiduously to Christianize the native population. Many of the priests were hearty supporters of the Inquisition, and their pastoral forays were often violent; beatings, dismemberment, and execution were all common punishments for the supposed heresies committed by Native Americans. France France was almost constantly at war during the 15th and 16th centuries, a situation that spurred an overseas agenda focused on income generation, although territorial expansion and religious conversion were important secondary goals.

France expressed an interest in the Americas as early as , when the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was commissioned to explore the Atlantic coast; in the French seaman Jacques Cartier entered the Gulf of St. The French eventually claimed dominion over most of the Northeast , Southeast , and American Subarctic peoples. Native nations, of course, had their own claims to these territories.

Concerned about Spanish claims to the Americas, the French made a number of unsuccessful attempts at settlement in the 16th century. They built and subsequently abandoned a fort near present-day Quebec in ; they also built a fort near present-day St.

Augustine , Florida , in , but the Spanish soon forced them to abandon that facility as well. In the French successfully established a more permanent presence on the continent, founding Acadia in present-day Nova Scotia. They did not succeed in establishing a major settlement in the south until , when they founded New Orleans. French colonial settlements were built on major waterways in order to expedite trade and shipping; the city of Quebec was founded in at the confluence of the St.

Charles rivers, and Montreal was founded in at the conjunction of the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa rivers. Although these trading centres were lively, the settlement of northern New France was slowed by several factors. Among these were the lucrative nature of the fur trade, which required a highly mobile and enterprising workforce—quite a different set of habits and skills than those required of farmers—and a cool climate, which produced thick furs but unpredictable harvests.

In a group of investors formed the Company of New France , but governance of the colony reverted to the king in , after the company repeatedly failed to meet the obligations of its charter.

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Native american indian sex videos

Native American history The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian. Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional arts , folk literature , folklore , archaeology , and other sources.

Powhatan village of SecotonPowhatan village of Secoton, colour engraving by Theodor de Bry, , after a watercolour drawing by John White, c. As one would expect, indigenous American farmers living in stratified societies, such as the Natchez , engaged with Europeans differently than did those who relied on hunting and gathering, such as the Apache.

Likewise, Spanish conquistadors were engaged in a fundamentally different kind of colonial enterprise than were their counterparts from France or England. The sections below consider broad trends in Native American history from the late 15th century to the late 20th century. More-recent events are considered in the final part of this article, Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. North America and Europe circa The population of Native America Scholarly estimates of the pre-Columbian population of Northern America have differed by millions of individuals: In anthropologist James Mooney undertook the first thorough investigation of the problem.

He estimated the precontact population density of each culture area based on historical accounts and carrying capacity, an estimate of the number of people who could be supported by a given form of subsistence. Mooney concluded that approximately 1,, individuals lived in Northern America at the time of Columbian landfall.

In ethnohistorian Henry Dobyns estimated that there were between 9,, and 12,, people north of the Rio Grande before contact; in he revised that number upward to 18,, people. Dobyns was among the first scholars to seriously consider the effects of epidemic diseases on indigenous demographic change.

He noted that, during the reliably recorded epidemics of the 19th century, introduced diseases such as smallpox had combined with various secondary effects i. He then used this and other information to calculate from early census data backward to probable founding populations. Some of his critics fault Dobyns for the disjunctions between physical evidence and his results, as when the number of houses archaeologists find at a site suggests a smaller population than do his models of demographic recovery.

Others, including the historian David Henige, criticize some of the assumptions Dobyns made in his analyses. For instance, many early fur traders noted the approximate number of warriors fielded by a tribe but neglected to mention the size of the general population. This group notes that severe epidemics of European diseases may have begun in North America in the late 10th or early 11th century, when the Norse briefly settled a region they called Vinland.

Yet another group of demographers protest that an emphasis on population loss obscures the resilience shown by indigenous peoples in the face of conquest. Most common, however, is a middle position that acknowledges that demographic models of 15th-century Native America must be treated with caution, while also accepting that the direct and indirect effects of the European conquest included extraordinary levels of indigenous mortality not only from introduced diseases but also from battles, slave raids, and—for those displaced by these events—starvation and exposure.

This perspective acknowledges both the resiliency of Native American peoples and cultures and the suffering they bore. Native American ethnic and political diversity Determining the number of ethnic and political groups in pre-Columbian Northern America is also problematic, not least because definitions of what constitutes an ethnic group or a polity vary with the questions one seeks to answer. Ethnicity is most frequently equated with some aspect of language , while social or political organization can occur on a number of scales simultaneously.

Thus, a given set of people might be defined as an ethnic group through their use of a common dialect or language even as they are recognized as members of nested polities such as a clan , a village, and a confederation. Other factors, including geographic boundaries, a subsistence base that emphasized either foraging or farming, the presence or absence of a social or religious hierarchy , and the inclinations of colonial bureaucrats , among others, also affected ethnic and political classification; see Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band.

The cross-cutting relationships between ethnicity and political organization are complex today and were equally so in the past. And both the hypothetical Germanic speaker and the hypothetical Iroquoian speaker live or lived in nested polities or quasi-polities: Recognizing that it is difficult to determine precisely how many ethnic or political groups or polities were present in 15th-century Northern America, most researchers favour relative rather than specific quantification of these entities.

The outstanding characteristic of North American Indian languages is their diversity—at contact Northern America was home to more than 50 language families comprising between and languages. At the same moment in history, western Europe had only 2 language families Indo-European and Uralic and between 40 and 70 languages. In other words, if one follows scholarly conventions and defines ethnicity through language, Native America was vastly more diverse than Europe. Politically , most indigenous American groups used consensus-based forms of organization.

In such systems, leaders rose in response to a particular need rather than gaining some fixed degree of power. The Southeast Indians and the Northwest Coast Indians were exceptions to this general rule, as they most frequently lived in hierarchical societies with a clear chiefly class. Regardless of the form of organization, however, indigenous American polities were quite independent when compared with European communities of similar size.

European populations and polities Just as Native American experiences during the early colonial period must be framed by an understanding of indigenous demography, ethnic diversity , and political organization, so must they be contextualized by the social, economic, political, and religious changes that were taking place in Europe at the time. These changes drove European expansionism and are often discussed as part of the centuries-long transition from feudalism to industrial capitalism see Western colonialism.

Many scholars hold that the events of the early colonial period are inextricably linked to the epidemics of the Black Death , or bubonic plague , that struck Europe between and Perhaps 25 million people, about one-third of the population , died during this epidemic. The population did not return to preplague levels until the early s. The intervening period was a time of severe labour shortages that enabled commoners to demand wages for their work.

Standards of living increased dramatically for a few generations, and some peasants were even able to buy small farms. These were radical changes from the previous era, during which most people had been tied to the land and a lord through serfdom.

These conflicts created intense local and regional hardship, as the roving brigands that constituted the military typically commandeered whatever they wanted from the civilian population.

In the theatres of war, troops were more or less free to take over private homes and to impress people into labour ; famine , rape , and murder were all too prevalent in these areas. Further, tax revenues could not easily be levied on devastated regions, even though continued military expenditures had begun to drain the treasuries of western Europe.

As treasuries were depleted, overseas trade beckoned. The Ottoman Empire controlled the overland routes from Europe to South Asia , with its markets of spices and other commercially lucrative goods.

Seeking to establish a sea route to the region, the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator sponsored expeditions down the Atlantic coast of Africa. Later expeditions attempted to reach the Indian Ocean , but they were severely tested by the rough seas at the Cape of Good Hope. Christopher Columbus had been a member of several such voyages and proposed an alternative , transatlantic route; in he requested the sponsorship of John II , the king of Portugal , who refused to support an exploratory journey.

Iberia was a hotbed of activity at the time. Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille had begun to unify their kingdoms through their marriage , but they were soon forced to resolve bitter challenges to their individual ascensions.

Eventually quelling civil war, the devout Roman Catholic sovereigns initiated the final phase of the Reconquista, pitting their forces against the last Moorish stronghold, Grenada. The city fell in January , an event Columbus reportedly witnessed. The seemingly endless military and police actions to which Ferdinand and Isabella had been party had severely depleted their financial reserves. Having lost so many of its best minds, Spain faced a very slow economic recovery, if it was to recover at all.

Although Columbus did not find a route with which to sidestep Ottoman trade hegemony , his journey nonetheless opened the way to overseas wealth. Spain used American resources to restore its imperiled economy, a strategy that was soon adopted by the other maritime nations of Europe as well. Suspected Protestants being tortured as heretics during the Spanish Inquisition.

This situation continued into the 16th century, when at least four factors contributed to levels of inflation so high as to be unprecedented: Colonial exploration routes within Canada. Colonial exploration routes within the United States. European colonialism was thus begotten in a social climate fraught with war , religious intolerance, a dispossessed peasantry, and inflation.

Despite these commonalities, however, each of the countries that attempted to colonize North America in the 16th and 17th centuries—Spain, France, England, the Netherlands, and Sweden—had particular goals, methods, and geographic interests that played an important role in shaping Native American history. The first country to send large expeditions to the Americas, Spain focused its initial efforts on the conquest of the wealthy Aztec and Inca empires, which fell in and , respectively.

Immense quantities of precious metals were seized from these peoples and shipped to Spain; the initial influx of hard currency provided a period of fiscal relief, but the country suffered bankruptcy in the later 16th century and never fully recovered. The conquest of the Americas also provided overseas work for the men who had fought in the Reconquista , thus limiting the damage they might have inflicted if left unemployed in Iberia.

In lieu of pay or a pension , many conquistadors were provided with encomiendas , a form of vassal slavery in which a particular Indian population was granted to a Spaniard. The system alleviated demands on the treasury and also transplanted the Spanish social hierarchy to the colonies. Encomiendas were gradually supplanted by haciendas —landed estates or plantations. However, this legal nicety did little to change conditions for the Indians living under Spanish rule.

Having vanquished the indigenous nations of Mexico and Peru , the conquistadors turned their attention to Northern America. In the same year, Hernando de Soto was authorized to establish Spanish control of La Florida the southeastern United States and its residents; he rode out with more than conquistadors. Both expeditions relied upon large complements of native labourers, who were forcibly impressed into service. Coronado, de Soto, and their troops destroyed communities that resisted their demands for tribute, women, supplies, and obeisance.

Concerted efforts at settlement north of Mexico began in in La Florida, with the founding of St. Although its explorers sighted the coast of California in , Spain did not colonize that area until the second part of the 18th century. Marriage between Spanish men and native women was acceptable, although concubinage was more common; intermarriage was effectively forbidden to the few Spanish women who lived in the colonies. After a few generations, a complex social order based on ancestry, land ownership , wealth , and noble titles had become entrenched in the Spanish colonies.

The Roman Catholic missionaries that accompanied Coronado and de Soto worked assiduously to Christianize the native population. Many of the priests were hearty supporters of the Inquisition, and their pastoral forays were often violent; beatings, dismemberment, and execution were all common punishments for the supposed heresies committed by Native Americans.

France France was almost constantly at war during the 15th and 16th centuries, a situation that spurred an overseas agenda focused on income generation, although territorial expansion and religious conversion were important secondary goals.

France expressed an interest in the Americas as early as , when the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was commissioned to explore the Atlantic coast; in the French seaman Jacques Cartier entered the Gulf of St. The French eventually claimed dominion over most of the Northeast , Southeast , and American Subarctic peoples.

Native nations, of course, had their own claims to these territories. Concerned about Spanish claims to the Americas, the French made a number of unsuccessful attempts at settlement in the 16th century. They built and subsequently abandoned a fort near present-day Quebec in ; they also built a fort near present-day St. Augustine , Florida , in , but the Spanish soon forced them to abandon that facility as well. In the French successfully established a more permanent presence on the continent, founding Acadia in present-day Nova Scotia.

They did not succeed in establishing a major settlement in the south until , when they founded New Orleans. French colonial settlements were built on major waterways in order to expedite trade and shipping; the city of Quebec was founded in at the confluence of the St. Charles rivers, and Montreal was founded in at the conjunction of the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa rivers.

Although these trading centres were lively, the settlement of northern New France was slowed by several factors. Among these were the lucrative nature of the fur trade, which required a highly mobile and enterprising workforce—quite a different set of habits and skills than those required of farmers—and a cool climate, which produced thick furs but unpredictable harvests.

In a group of investors formed the Company of New France , but governance of the colony reverted to the king in , after the company repeatedly failed to meet the obligations of its charter.

Native american indian sex videos

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4 Comments

  1. Most of the visitors were French or English, and they were initially more interested in cartography and trade than in physical conquest. Having defeated the Huron confederacy to their north and west, the Iroquois took the Beaver Wars to the large Algonquin population to their north and east, to the Algonquian territory to their west and south, and to the French settlements of Huronia. The combination of smallpox, the collapse of the beaver population, and the stoppage of trade precipitated an economic crisis for the Huron, who had shifted so far from a subsistence economy to one focused on exchange that they faced starvation.

  2. In response to English thievery mostly of food , Powhatan prohibited the trading of comestibles to the colonists. Within five years, colonists were flouting the new boundary and were once again poaching in Powhatan territory. Such actions may have been customary among the Southeast Indians at this time—diplomatic customs in many cultures have included holding nobles hostage as a surety against the depredations of their troops.

  3. This was the northern limit at which agriculture was possible, and the Huron grew corn maize to eat and to trade to their Subarctic Indian neighbours—the Innu to the north and east and the Cree to the west—who provided meat and fish in return. The French eventually claimed dominion over most of the Northeast , Southeast , and American Subarctic peoples.

  4. The Subarctic climate and ecosystem were eminently suited to the production of fur-bearing animals.

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