History[ edit ] Native American period[ edit ] Long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. Researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlone's primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
The existing building dates to Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino also noted and named the "Point of Pines" labeled on today's maps as "Point Pinos", the northernmost point of the Monterey Peninsula. All other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcaino's name for the bay. For some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1, The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back.
On the return journey, they camped near one of Monterey's lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Fages became the second governor of Alta California, serving from to The existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio.
Monterey became the capital of the "Province of Both Californias" in , and the chapel was renamed the Royal Presidio Chapel. The original church was destroyed by fire in and replaced by the present sandstone structure. It was completed in by Indian labor. The cathedral is the oldest continuously operating parish and the oldest stone building in California.
It is also the oldest and smallest serving cathedral along with St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, Louisiana. It is the only existing presidio chapel in California and the only surviving building from the original Monterey Presidio. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House , the oldest governmental building in the state and California's Historic Landmark Number One.
This photo dates from The fort resisted ineffectively, and after an hour of combat the Argentine flag flew over it. The town's residents were unharmed. It was on this date that John D. In addition, many historic "firsts" occurred in Monterey.
These include California's first theater , brick house, publicly funded school, public building, public library, and printing press, which printed The Californian , California's first newspaper. Monterey hosted California's first constitutional convention in , which composed the documents necessary to apply to the United States for statehood. Today it houses a small museum, while adjacent buildings serve as the seat of local government, and the Monterey post office opened in That changed in the s when the local fishery business collapsed due to overfishing.
A few of the old fishermen's cabins from the early 20th century have been preserved as they originally stood along Cannery Row. The city has a noteworthy history as a center for California painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Heinlein , and Henry Miller. More recently, Monterey has been recognized for its significant involvement in post-secondary learning of languages other than English and its major role in delivering translation and interpretation services around the world.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has a total area of Sand deposits in the northern coastal area comprise the sole known mineral resources. Local soil is Quaternary Alluvium. Common soil series include the Baywood fine sand on the east side, Narlon loamy sand on the west side, Sheridan coarse sandy loam on hilly terrain, and the pale Tangair sand on hills supporting closed-cone pine habitat.
The Monterey Bay fault, which tracks three miles 4. Also nearby, minor but potentially active, are the Berwick Canyon, Seaside, Tularcitos and Chupines faults. Monterey Bay's maximum credible tsunami for a year interval has been calculated as a wave nine feet 2. The considerable undeveloped area in the northwest part of the city has a high potential for landslides and erosion.
Sometimes this sanctuary is confused with the local bay which is also termed Monterey Bay. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. The California sea otter , a threatened subspecies, inhabits the local Monterey Bay marine environment, and a field station of The Marine Mammal Center is located in Monterey to support sea rescue operations in this section of the California coast.
The rare San Joaquin kit fox is found in Monterey's oak-forest and chaparral habitats. The chaparral, found mainly on the city's drier eastern slopes, hosts such plants as manzanita , chamise and ceanothus. Additional species of interest that is, potential candidates for endangered species status are the Salinas kangaroo rat and the silver-sided legless lizard.
Monterey Wharf and Harbor area There is a variety of natural habitat in Monterey: There are no dairy farms in the city of Monterey; the semi-hard cheese known as Monterey Jack originated in nearby Carmel Valley, California , and is named after businessman and land speculator David Jack. The closed-cone pine habitat is dominated by Monterey pine , Knobcone pine and Bishop pine , and contains the rare Monterey manzanita. In the early 20th century the botanist Willis Linn Jepson characterized Monterey Peninsula's forests as the "most important silva ever", and encouraged Samuel F.
Morse a century younger than the inventor Samuel F. Morse of the Del Monte Properties Company Properties Company to explore the possibilities of preserving the unique forest communities. Rare plants also inhabit the chaparral: Hickman's onion, Yadon's piperia Piperia yadonii and Sandmat manzanita. Other rare plants in Monterey include Hutchinson's delphinium , Tidestrom lupine , Gardner's yampah and Monterey Knotweed , the latter perhaps already extinct.
Monterey's noise pollution has been mapped to define the principal sources of noise and to ascertain the areas of the population exposed to significant levels. The most intense source is State Route 1: Places adjacent to Monterey, California.