The Chiricahua were divided into two groups after they were released from being prisoners of war. By the s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west.
The ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French, essentially meaning an outlaw. The term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Difficulties in naming[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups.
Over the centuries, many Spanish, French and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area. Most commonly, Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym , what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans often did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms.
Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings.
Some scholars do not consider groups residing in what is now Mexico to be Apache. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan , as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions.
In , the U. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In the s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups based on his informants' views of dialect and cultural differences: Since then, other anthropologists e. Albert Schroeder consider Goodwin's classification inconsistent with pre-reservation cultural divisions.
Willem de Reuse finds linguistic evidence supporting only three major groupings: John Upton Terrell classifies the Apache into western and eastern groups. Brugge identifies 15 tribal names which the Spanish used to refer to the Apache. These were drawn from records of about baptisms from to The term Apache refers to six major Apache-speaking groups: Historically, the term was also used for Comanches , Mojaves , Hualapais , and Yavapais , none of whom speak Apache languages. Chiricahua[ edit ] Chiricahua historically lived in Southeastern Arizona.
The name is an autonym from the Chiricahua language. Gila refers to either the Gila River or the Gila Mountains. Some of the Gila Apaches were probably later known as the Mogollon Apaches, a Chiricahua sub-band, while others probably coalesced into the Chiricahua proper. But, since the term was used indiscriminately for all Apachean groups west of the Rio Grande i.
After , Spanish documents start to distinguish between these different groups, in which case Apaches de Gila refers to the Western Apache living along the Gila River synonymous with Coyotero.
American writers first used the term to refer to the Mimbres another Chiricahua subdivision. Mogollon was considered by Schroeder to be a separate pre-reservation Chiricahua band, while Opler considered the Mogollon to be part of his Eastern Chiricahua band in New Mexico. The term jicarilla comes from the Spanish word for "little gourd. In , they joined the Cuartelejo and Paloma, and by the s, they lived with the Jicarilla. Parts of the group were called Lipiyanes or Llaneros. In , the term Carlana was used to mean Jicarilla.
The Flechas de Palo might have been a part of or absorbed by the Carlana or Cuartelejo. They were first mentioned in records as being near the newly established town of San Antonio, Texas. After , Faraones only referred to the groups of the north and central parts of this region.
The Faraones like were part of the modern-day Mescalero or merged with them. After , the term Faraones disappeared and was replaced by Mescalero. Sacramento Mescaleros were a northern Mescalero group from the Sacramento and Organ Mountains, who roamed in what is now eastern New Mexico and western Texas. Limpia Mescaleros were a southern Mescalero group from the Limpia Mountains later named as Davis Mountains and roamed in what is now eastern New Mexico and western Texas.
After , the term became synonymous with Mescalero, which eventually replaced it. Historically, they followed the Kiowa.
Querechos referred to by Coronado in , possibly Plains Apaches, at times maybe Navajo. Other early Spanish might have also called them Vaquereo or Llanero. While these subgroups spoke the same language and had kinship ties, Western Apaches considered themselves as separate from each other, according to Goodwin.
Other writers have used this term to refer to all non-Navajo Apachean peoples living west of the Rio Grande thus failing to distinguish the Chiricahua from the other Apacheans. A Western Apache group that ranged closest to Tucson according to Goodwin. Arivaipa also Aravaipa is a band of the San Carlos Apache. Schroeder believes the Arivaipa were a separate people in pre-reservation times.
Arivaipa is a Hispanized word from the O'odham language. Also used along with Coyotero to refer more generally to one of two major Western Apache divisions. Goodwin divided into Northern Tonto and Southern Tonto groups, living in the north and west areas of the Western Apache groups according to Goodwin.
This is north of Phoenix, north of the Verde River. Schroeder has suggested that the Tonto are originally Yavapais who assimilated Western Apache culture. Tonto is one of the major dialects of the Western Apache language. Tonto Apache speakers are traditionally bilingual in Western Apache and Yavapai.
Coyotero refers to a southern pre-reservation White Mountain group of the Western Apache, but has also been used more widely to refer to the Apache in general, Western Apache, or an Apache band in the high plains of Southern Colorado to Kansas. Other terms[ edit ] Llanero is a Spanish-language borrowing meaning "plains dweller". The name referred to several different groups who hunted buffalo on the Great Plains.
This term is not to be confused with Lipan. Entry into the Southwest[ edit ] Apache rawhide playing cards, c. Other Athabaskan speakers, perhaps including the Southern Athabaskan, adapted many of their neighbors' technology and practices in their own cultures.
Thus sites where early Southern Athabaskans may have lived are difficult to locate and even more difficult to firmly identify as culturally Southern Athabaskan. Recent advances have been made in the regard in the far southern portion of the American Southwest. In the early 16th century, these mobile groups lived in tents, hunted bison and other game, and used dogs to pull travois loaded with their possessions. Substantial numbers of the people and a wide range were recorded by the Spanish in the 16th century.
After seventeen days of travel, I came upon a 'rancheria' of the Indians who follow these cattle bison. These natives are called Querechos. They do not cultivate the land, but eat raw meat and drink the blood of the cattle they kill. They dress in the skins of the cattle, with which all the people in this land clothe themselves, and they have very well-constructed tents, made with tanned and greased cowhides, in which they live and which they take along as they follow the cattle.
They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. An archaeological material culture assemblage identified in this mountainous zone as ancestral Apache has been referred to as the "Cerro Rojo complex".
When the Spanish arrived in the area, trade between the long established Pueblo peoples and the Southern Athabaskan was well established. They reported the Pueblo exchanged maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, and hides and materials for stone tools. Coronado observed the Plains people wintering near the Pueblo in established camps.
Later Spanish sovereignty over the area disrupted trade between the Pueblo and the diverging Apache and Navajo groups. The Apache quickly acquired horses, improving their mobility for quick raids on settlements.
In addition, the Pueblo were forced to work Spanish mission lands and care for mission flocks; they had fewer surplus goods to trade with their neighbors.
Other Spanish explorers first mention "Querechos" living west of the Rio Grande in the s. To some historians, this implies the Apaches moved into their current Southwestern homelands in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande.
This might indicate the semi-nomadic Southern Athabaskan had advance warning about his hostile approach and evaded encounter with the Spanish. Archaeologists are finding ample evidence of an early proto-Apache presence in the Southwestern mountain zone in the 15th century and perhaps earlier.
The Apache presence on both the Plains and in the mountainous Southwest indicate that the people took multiple early migration routes.
Apache Wars and Apache—Mexico Wars In general, the recently arrived Spanish colonists, who settled in villages, and Apache bands developed a pattern of interaction over a few centuries.
Both raided and traded with each other. Records of the period seem to indicate that relationships depended upon the specific villages and specific bands that were involved with each other. For example, one band might be friends with one village and raid another. When war happened, the Spanish would send troops; after a battle both sides would "sign a treaty," and both sides would go home.
Geronimo The traditional and sometimes treacherous relationships continued between the villages and bands with the independence of Mexico in By Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps see scalping , but certain villages were still trading with some bands.
By , authorities in horse-rich Durango would claim that Indian raids mostly Comanche and Apache in their state had taken nearly 6, lives, abducted people, and forced the abandonment of settlements over the previous 20 years. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the new citizens of the United States held until the s. An influx of gold miners into the Santa Rita Mountains led to conflict with the Apache.