This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY license http: Abstract The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide.
However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure.
We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan.
Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway. Introduction The Shinkansen super-express railway, the high-speed bullet train in Japan, has greatly increased its transportation capacity since the opening of the Tokaido Shinkansen line in Since then, the network of Shinkansen lines has been continuously expanded in Japan. The Hokuriku and Hokkaido Shinkansen lines were partially opened in and , respectively.
However, noise, ground vibration, and low-frequency sounds from operating trains continue to annoy inhabitants living in areas along the lines.
For vertical vibrations, Shinkansen railway-induced vibrations slightly increased when transmitted to wooden detached houses and decreased when transmitted to reinforced concrete apartment buildings. Thus, it is presumed that inhabitants living in detached houses are exposed to greater vibration than those in an apartment. Based on noise and vibration measurements in the areas along the Sanyo Shinkansen line and adjacent conventional railway lines, Yano et al.
Thus, it is likely that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. A number of social surveys on the community response to Shinkansen railway noise and vibration have been carried out in Japan.
Furthermore, they proposed not only a noise exposure-response relationship [ 5 , 6 ] but also a vibration exposure-response relationship [ 7 ]. Following these studies, more recent results of new social surveys have been reported. Using a logistic regression analysis, they indicated a relationship between the day-evening-night sound level Lden and annoyance associated with the Nagano Shinkansen railway.
A comparison of before and after the opening of the Kyushu Shinkansen line showed that high annoyance did not change significantly, but moderate annoyance decreased significantly following the opening. In contrast, there was no significant difference in either high or moderate annoyance between the periods before and after the opening of the conventional railway line. Apart from these studies, Yokoshima et al.
This finding indicates that there is no bonus to these railways in Japan, unlike European and North American countries. They reported that the difference between the absence and presence of a railway bonus could be attributed to the effect of associated house vibrations on noise annoyance. In addition to surveys, a number of laboratory-based experiments have been performed to examine human response to high-speed trains. They found that vibration did not influence the noise annoyance rating, but that the total annoyance caused by the combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone.
The results indicated that there was a combined effect of noise and vibrations on disturbances in thinking and reading tasks at low levels of noise exposure. The results of previous studies indicate that noise and vibration induced by the Shinkansen railway likely have a combined effect on annoyance. However, the relationship between both exposures and each individual annoyance has not been quantified.
Therefore, to clarify the combined effect, we performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of noise and vibration exposures, as well as community responses associated with the Shinkansen railway.
Using data compiled through six socio-acoustic surveys conducted separately over the past 20 years in Japan, we compared exposure-response relationships associated with the Shinkansen railway noise and vibration by dataset. Then, we applied a logistic regression analysis to the datasets and examined the effect of noise and vibration exposures on annoyance.
Finally, we adjusted for confounding factors to reveal and show the relationships of noise exposure, vibration exposure, and the related annoyance. Social Surveys In this study, we examined data from four Shinkansen lines. The Tokaido Shinkansen line TSL , which opened in , currently operates more than trains per day.
The individual datasets analyzed in this paper were derived from six social surveys: Regarding annoyance due to Shinkansen railway noise hereafter denoted as noise annoyance , five surveys used the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise ICBEN verbal scale, where the possible responses included: However, it should be noted that the NGY survey measured noise annoyance from the railway without specifying the Shinkansen line.
In addition, the KNG95 survey measured annoyance only for the two most bothersome noise sources on a four-point scale 1. Thus, noise annoyance in this survey could be converted into a five-point scale.