This can be seen by continuing the above example. It is possible for the masculine-raised child to decide later in life - or without the parents knowledge earlier in life - to engage in feminine behaviors, and the same could happen with the feminine-raised child in fact, many parents raise children in gender neutral ways that allow the children to make these decisions from the start.
In so doing, the aforementioned children could adopt relatively varied behaviors that create an androgynous or gender neutral self, or they could simply adopt the opposite raised masculine, but decide to live feminine sometimes or all the time and vice versa gender performances see the image of drag queens for male people that adopt feminine expressions and behaviors sometimes. Either change, however, would require a adopting different gender performances than those promoted and enforced by dominant social structures, and b risking ridicule, harassment, and discrimination at the hands of cisgender people often referred to as cissexism or transphobia.
Men dressed in drag in Montreal, Canada. Biological Differences[ edit ] While much of this chapter focuses on the socially constructed differences between men and women, it is also important to note there are some clear physiological differences between the two sexes. While it is as yet unknown how or why these differences develop, scholars typically attempt to explain the differences in one of two ways.
Scientific disciplines tied more firmly to existing gender norms within a society, for example, typically argue that biological distinctions create these differences, and use these differences to argue that there are inherent differences between women and men non cis-gender people are generally ignored completely by these fields and within their arguments.
On the other hand, more progressive and diverse scientific communities generally argue that these differences reflect existing gender inequalities within a given society, and thus merely demonstrate that the social construction of sex and gender has biological as well as social consequences. While the emergence of bio-social mathematical models and critical examinations of scientific texts may shed light on this debate in the decades to come, at present the answers remain beyond empirical reach.
As a result, the following paragraphs outline these differences while also noting the ways that social factors may cause or influence such differences.
Female life expectancy in the U. Behaviorally, age of sitting, teething, and walking all occur at about the same time in females and males. However, males enter puberty on average two years later than females it is important to note, however, that females have a clear sign e. However, females are, statistically, twice as vulnerable to anxiety disorders and depression possibly due to their experience as a subordinate or minority group within many societies , but only one-third as vulnerable to suicide and one-fifth as vulnerable to alcoholism potentially due to traditional definitions of masculinities that link violence and substance abuse to masculinities.
Females are also less likely to suffer hyperactivity or speech disorders as children or to display antisocial personalities as adults potentially due to gender socialization wherein femininities are associated with social behaviors and communication skills.
In fact, the temporal lobe, which is the part of the brain associated with language and emotion, develops up to 4 years earlier in females in comparison to boys which mirrors patterns of gender socialization for femininities  On the other hand, the left parietal lobe, which is associated with mathematical and spatial reasoning, is thought to develop up to 4 years earlier in males which corresponds to masculine socialization in terms of rationality and noted encouragement favoring male students in the physical sciences.
This difference could account for the fact that females are sometimes thought to be better when it comes to language and are more emotional following their gender socialization requirements , while males are thought to be better in math following their gender socialization requirements. As well, some say that females are better at hearing than males. A typical teenaged female in a society with high levels of gender inequality hears up to 7 times better than a typical teenaged male in the same society.
This along with masculine socialization emphasizing acting out, being loud, and avoiding being controlled could possibly explain why males are diagnosed with ADHD more often and may be the result of feminine socialization emphasizing the care-taking of others. Lastly there is a difference between sight for young females and males. Females use the p-cells in the retina, which are associated with texture and color, while males use m-cells, which are associated with motion. For example, in work group situations in the U.
Two detailed examples of socially constructed gender differences are presented below: Work and Occupations[ edit ] An often discussed and debated difference between men and women involves work and occupations. Women's participation in the workforce has varied significantly over time. Prior to the development of capitalism and factory-type work, women played a significant role in food production and household maintenance.
With the advent of capitalism and labor outside of the home, women continued to play a significant role, though their participation in paid labor outside the home initially diminished.
Also, women's participation in the labor force varied and varies depending on marital status and social class. For instance, since , women's participation in the labor force has grown from 32 million This difference is often illustrated as a ratio, as shown in the graph below.
For instance, college educated women between 26 and 45 earned However, at all educational and skill levels, women still make less than men, as illustrated in the figure below. That women earn less than men with equal qualifications helps explain why women are enrolling in college at higher rates than are men - they require a college education to make the same amount as men with a high school diploma.
Ratio of Women's Earnings to Men's Earnings in The gap between men's and women's wages narrowed during the s and mid s, but that momentum has fallen off and the distance now appears to have stagnated. Thus, even the apparent narrowing of pay between the sexes likely overestimates the actual differences in pay. It is quite difficult for women to climb to the top in the business world. Women are also often put into leadership positions in corporations when companies are in a crisis and have little hope for recovery, resulting in poorer evaluations of women in leadership positions.
You can think about this from the perspective of a potential employer: If you have two equally qualified candidates for a position, both are in their mid-twenties, married, and straight out of college, but one is a male and the other is female, which would you choose? Many employers choose men over women because women are "at risk" of having a child, even though they may not want to have children. And, of course, to the potential employer accommodating a pregnant woman and mother is more cumbersome than a male turned father despite the obvious need for children to continue our species.
Thus, women pay a penalty for their ability to give birth. Additionally, when women do have children, this often requires a period of time outside the workforce, whether it's six weeks or several months. Employers take the time off into account when considering raises. The "Mommy track" often results in women making less money than equally qualified men who have been in the same job for the same amount of time because women take time off to have children and are often responsible for taking care of children while men rarely do so.
Thus, women are often paid less despite having the same qualifications because they are 1 at risk of having children or 2 do have children and are penalized for doing so. Another possible explanation for the wage gap between men and women has recently been proposed - customer bias towards white males.
They provide further evidence to support this claim by noting that white male doctors are rated as more approachable and competent than other doctors. They interpret their findings to suggest that employers are willing to pay more for white male employees because employers are customer driven and customers are happier with white male employees.
They also suggest that what is required to solve the problem of wage inequality isn't necessarily paying women more but changing customer biases. Additional reasons for disparity in pay are discussed below. Another factor that may contribute to the higher wages of white men is the number of job leads they receive. Black men and women receive about as many job leads and tips, but only for non-management jobs. As many jobs result from social networking, white males are advantaged by their higher number of job leads, potentially contributing to their higher salaries and more prestigious jobs.
Education[ edit ] Another often studied difference between men and women is educational attainment. For a long time, higher education undergraduate and graduate education was an exclusively male bastion.
Women did eventually gain access to institutions of higher learning, but parity or equality on a number of levels has still not been achieved. One measure of educational attainment where women have made great inroads is in college attendance. In , more female high school graduates were enrolling in college than males, Women now earn more Bachelors and Masters degrees than do men, and for the first time in , they earned more PhDs.
While women are entering college at higher rates and even earning more degrees, the degrees are in less prestigious areas e.
The highest paid specialties are dominated by men and will be for decades to come, based on the pipeline of residents: One recent study offers a partial explanation for why this might be the case: This anxiety led girls to believe boys were better at math than girls, though there is no evidence to suggest that is actually the case.
Sexism can refer to four subtly different beliefs or attitudes: The belief that there are only two sexes. The belief that one sex is superior to the others. The belief that men and women as well as other genders are very different and that this should be strongly reflected in society, language, the right to have sex, and the law. It can also refer to simple hatred of men misandry or women misogyny or trans people transphobia.
Many peoples' beliefs on this topic range along a continuum. Some people believe that women should have equal access to all jobs. Others believe that while women are superior to men in a few aspects, in most aspects men are superior to women. Some believe that cisgender people are normal and better than transgender people while others do not even factor transgender people into their reasoning.
Women voting in Bangladesh. Sexist beliefs are an example of essentialist thought, which holds that individuals can be understood and often judged based on the characteristics of the group to which they belong; in this case, their sex group male, female, or intersex. Essentialism assumes that all individuals clearly fit into the category of male or female, which is not the case.
It also assumes characteristics are immutable, which is also not the case. A good example of sexism against women is a question that has been asked in numerous surveys over the years in the US, "Would you vote for a female candidate for president?
Sexism against women is often called chauvinism , though chauvinism is actually a wider term for any extreme and unreasonable partisanship toward a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. Many forms of radical feminism and cissexism can legitimately be referred to as chauvinism. This is not common usage, however, and the term is most often used to refer to male chauvinism.
While the view that women are superior to men is also sexism, only in recent years has an awareness of this reverse sexism begun to develop in public discourse. Certain forms of sexual discrimination are illegal in many countries, but nearly all countries have laws that give special rights, privileges, or responsibilities to one sex.
Recent research illustrates the pervasiveness of sexism in the media. In , , high school girls played interscholastic sports, compared to 3. By that ratio changed substantially - 1. By the ratio had changed even more - 2. At the collegiate level, the change was also substantial. In , the average college in the U. In just the four years between and , universities in the U.
Despite the increase in participation in sports, major network news coverage of women's sports has changed very little over the last 15 years.
Sports highlights shows e. What's more, the little amount of air time given to women often portrays women's sports as "novelties" or pseudo-sports and often includes gags, like the women's nude bungee jump in Additionally, much of the coverage of women in sports is sexualized, as attention is often only given to women deemed "attractive" by the news anchors e.
Whether this treatment of women in sport is intentional or not, it is a clear example of sexism in the media. Oprah Winfrey is one of the wealthiest women in the world, an exception to the findings of Tickamyer.