What effects does sex have on the vagina. What happens the first time you have sex?.



What effects does sex have on the vagina

What effects does sex have on the vagina

Advanced Search Abstract Effects of a single episode of intercourse on vaginal flora and epithelium were examined in subjects randomly assigned to groups that used no condom or lubricated nonspermicide condoms. Subjects were evaluated at visits before 1 month and 1—2 days and after 8—12 h, 2—3 days, and 6—8 days an index episode of sexual intercourse.

The 20 subjects who used condoms had a trend toward more vaginal E. Intercourse was not associated with gross, colposcopic, or histologic vaginal epithelial abnormalities Unprotected sexual intercourse facilitates the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases STDs , including human immunodeficiency virus HIV.

This has drawn attention to infections, flora, and epithelial factors in the female genital tract that could enhance or decrease heterosexual HIV transmission [ 4—6 ]. Increased acquisition of HIV appears to occur with a wide variety of sexually transmitted cervical infections Neisseria gonorrhoeae [ 6 , 7 ] and Chlamydia trachomatis [ 6 ] and vaginal infections not solely sexually transmitted e. The absence of Lactobacillus organisms also appears to be a factor in the acquisition of HIV [ 9 ].

In addition, Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with an increased hazard ratio for the acquisition of HIV, although the findings often do not reach statistical significance [ 6—8 ] Because use of a condom could reduce the transmission of all of these microbes, condom use has been advanced as an effective method to prevent HIV transmission [ 4 , 5 ].

Previous studies showed that intercourse with condoms lubricated with nonoxynol-9 and nonlubricated condoms increases the risk of urinary tract infection UTI [ 10—12 ].

Intercourse without condoms is also associated with increased Escherichia coli colonization of the vagina and bacteriuria [ 13 ]. However, studies have not compared the effect of no condom use with condom use on vaginal epithelium. Here we report the effects of a single index episode of vaginal intercourse in 2 randomly selected study groups: We examined vaginal flora and vaginal epithelium by gross, colposcopic, and histologic means in women without a bacterial or fungal genital infection, except for bacterial vaginosis.

Condoms with nonoxynol-9, the most commonly used spermicide, were not used, because of the variable effects reported of nonoxynol-9 use on genital epithelium and flora [ 14—16 ] Subjects and Methods From March to May , female subjects were enrolled from the University of Washington student and staff population.

Subjects were recruited through newspaper ads, flyers, and word-of-mouth referrals. Women were eligible for study if they were 18—40 years old, had regular monthly menses, 1 sex partner, used combination oral contraceptive pills or permanent contraception, and agreed to refrain from vaginal medication.

Exclusion criteria were the following groups of factors: We also excluded subjects who, at baseline, had N. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis was not an exclusion criterion, and subjects with asymptomatic bacterial vaginitis during the study were not treated Demographic, sexual, contraceptive, and gynecologic history, including current genital symptoms, were collected on standardized forms at enrollment. Women were asked to refrain from intercourse for 2—5 days before examination at visits 1 and 2.

Visit 1 occurred 19—24 days after the last menstrual period, and visit 2 occurred 1 month later 15—22 days from the last menstrual period , so that the vaginal biopsy performed after intercourse was done at a similar time in the menstrual cycle 19—24 days. At visit 1, subjects were randomized to the condom or no condom group by computer-generated random numbers table. After visit 2, subjects were asked to have 1 episode of vaginal intercourse in the next 1—2 days and to return for examination at visit 3 8—12 h after intercourse , visit 4 3—4 days after intercourse , and visit 5 6—8 days after intercourse after the index episode of intercourse.

Subjects refrained from intercourse between visits 3 and 5. At the follow-up visits, we obtained an interval sexual and gynecologic history and performed vaginal and cervical examinations. A midstream clean catch urine was collected for culture before each examination. A second vaginal biopsy was done at visit 3 8—12 h after intercourse At each visit, external genitalia were visually examined.

A nonlubricated speculum was inserted for visual and colposcopic examination of the vaginal walls. The amount of vaginal discharge was qualitatively assessed and was recorded.

The vaginal posterior fornix was swabbed, and the swabs were placed in transport media Port-A-Cul; Becton Dickinson and were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria within 12 h, as reported elsewhere [ 18 ]. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 —producing lactobacilli were identified by the blue pigment formed when H2O2 oxidizes tetramethylbenzidine present in brucella agar base [ 19 ].

Cervical samples for cytology and for C. We removed a 2- by 4-mm full-thickness sample of vaginal epithelium by cervical biopsy forceps Mini-Townsend; Cooper Surgical. Biopsy tissue was pinned flat on styrofoam to minimize distortion during formalin fixation. One of us D. Data are shown as a mean of the 2 fields. Included in this model were E. For tables 2—5 , statistical analyses were based on trend over time in the same subject.

The groups were similar in all demographic characteristics examined. Most subjects were young, single, white, nonsmoking students, but whites made up a slightly higher proportion of subjects in the condom group. The groups had similar smoking, alcohol, sex, and contraceptive histories.

To prevent pregnancy during the study, all but 1 subject in the no condom group used oral contraceptives that woman had a tubal ligation.

There were no differences between the 2 groups in current genital symptoms or menstrual history data not shown. There were no significant differences in gross or colposcopic abnormalities of the vagina, amount of vaginal discharge, or viscosity of vaginal discharge between groups data not shown Clinical and vaginal epithelial findings before and after intercourseClinical findings at visit 1 and 1 month later at visit 2 were almost identical first visit data are not shown.

In table 2 , selected results of the clinical examination are provided for visit 2 no intercourse in previous 2 days , visit 3 8—12 h after index episode of intercourse , visit 4 3—4 days after intercourse , and visit 5 6—8 days after intercourse. The presence of erythema decreased by visit 4 in both groups. The visual and colposcopy appearance of the vagina and the mean vaginal pH did not change after intercourse in either group.

The mean number of epithelial cell layers of the vaginal mucosa and the mean number of neutrophils per 5 high-powered fields were similar before and after intercourse in both groups. The presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells also did not change in the vaginal submucosa between visits 1 and 3 in either group data not shown.

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What effects does sex have on the vagina

Advanced Search Abstract Effects of a single episode of intercourse on vaginal flora and epithelium were examined in subjects randomly assigned to groups that used no condom or lubricated nonspermicide condoms. Subjects were evaluated at visits before 1 month and 1—2 days and after 8—12 h, 2—3 days, and 6—8 days an index episode of sexual intercourse. The 20 subjects who used condoms had a trend toward more vaginal E.

Intercourse was not associated with gross, colposcopic, or histologic vaginal epithelial abnormalities Unprotected sexual intercourse facilitates the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases STDs , including human immunodeficiency virus HIV. This has drawn attention to infections, flora, and epithelial factors in the female genital tract that could enhance or decrease heterosexual HIV transmission [ 4—6 ].

Increased acquisition of HIV appears to occur with a wide variety of sexually transmitted cervical infections Neisseria gonorrhoeae [ 6 , 7 ] and Chlamydia trachomatis [ 6 ] and vaginal infections not solely sexually transmitted e.

The absence of Lactobacillus organisms also appears to be a factor in the acquisition of HIV [ 9 ]. In addition, Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with an increased hazard ratio for the acquisition of HIV, although the findings often do not reach statistical significance [ 6—8 ] Because use of a condom could reduce the transmission of all of these microbes, condom use has been advanced as an effective method to prevent HIV transmission [ 4 , 5 ].

Previous studies showed that intercourse with condoms lubricated with nonoxynol-9 and nonlubricated condoms increases the risk of urinary tract infection UTI [ 10—12 ].

Intercourse without condoms is also associated with increased Escherichia coli colonization of the vagina and bacteriuria [ 13 ]. However, studies have not compared the effect of no condom use with condom use on vaginal epithelium. Here we report the effects of a single index episode of vaginal intercourse in 2 randomly selected study groups: We examined vaginal flora and vaginal epithelium by gross, colposcopic, and histologic means in women without a bacterial or fungal genital infection, except for bacterial vaginosis.

Condoms with nonoxynol-9, the most commonly used spermicide, were not used, because of the variable effects reported of nonoxynol-9 use on genital epithelium and flora [ 14—16 ] Subjects and Methods From March to May , female subjects were enrolled from the University of Washington student and staff population. Subjects were recruited through newspaper ads, flyers, and word-of-mouth referrals. Women were eligible for study if they were 18—40 years old, had regular monthly menses, 1 sex partner, used combination oral contraceptive pills or permanent contraception, and agreed to refrain from vaginal medication.

Exclusion criteria were the following groups of factors: We also excluded subjects who, at baseline, had N. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis was not an exclusion criterion, and subjects with asymptomatic bacterial vaginitis during the study were not treated Demographic, sexual, contraceptive, and gynecologic history, including current genital symptoms, were collected on standardized forms at enrollment.

Women were asked to refrain from intercourse for 2—5 days before examination at visits 1 and 2. Visit 1 occurred 19—24 days after the last menstrual period, and visit 2 occurred 1 month later 15—22 days from the last menstrual period , so that the vaginal biopsy performed after intercourse was done at a similar time in the menstrual cycle 19—24 days.

At visit 1, subjects were randomized to the condom or no condom group by computer-generated random numbers table. After visit 2, subjects were asked to have 1 episode of vaginal intercourse in the next 1—2 days and to return for examination at visit 3 8—12 h after intercourse , visit 4 3—4 days after intercourse , and visit 5 6—8 days after intercourse after the index episode of intercourse.

Subjects refrained from intercourse between visits 3 and 5. At the follow-up visits, we obtained an interval sexual and gynecologic history and performed vaginal and cervical examinations. A midstream clean catch urine was collected for culture before each examination. A second vaginal biopsy was done at visit 3 8—12 h after intercourse At each visit, external genitalia were visually examined.

A nonlubricated speculum was inserted for visual and colposcopic examination of the vaginal walls. The amount of vaginal discharge was qualitatively assessed and was recorded.

The vaginal posterior fornix was swabbed, and the swabs were placed in transport media Port-A-Cul; Becton Dickinson and were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria within 12 h, as reported elsewhere [ 18 ]. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 —producing lactobacilli were identified by the blue pigment formed when H2O2 oxidizes tetramethylbenzidine present in brucella agar base [ 19 ].

Cervical samples for cytology and for C. We removed a 2- by 4-mm full-thickness sample of vaginal epithelium by cervical biopsy forceps Mini-Townsend; Cooper Surgical.

Biopsy tissue was pinned flat on styrofoam to minimize distortion during formalin fixation. One of us D. Data are shown as a mean of the 2 fields. Included in this model were E.

For tables 2—5 , statistical analyses were based on trend over time in the same subject. The groups were similar in all demographic characteristics examined. Most subjects were young, single, white, nonsmoking students, but whites made up a slightly higher proportion of subjects in the condom group.

The groups had similar smoking, alcohol, sex, and contraceptive histories. To prevent pregnancy during the study, all but 1 subject in the no condom group used oral contraceptives that woman had a tubal ligation.

There were no differences between the 2 groups in current genital symptoms or menstrual history data not shown. There were no significant differences in gross or colposcopic abnormalities of the vagina, amount of vaginal discharge, or viscosity of vaginal discharge between groups data not shown Clinical and vaginal epithelial findings before and after intercourseClinical findings at visit 1 and 1 month later at visit 2 were almost identical first visit data are not shown.

In table 2 , selected results of the clinical examination are provided for visit 2 no intercourse in previous 2 days , visit 3 8—12 h after index episode of intercourse , visit 4 3—4 days after intercourse , and visit 5 6—8 days after intercourse.

The presence of erythema decreased by visit 4 in both groups. The visual and colposcopy appearance of the vagina and the mean vaginal pH did not change after intercourse in either group.

The mean number of epithelial cell layers of the vaginal mucosa and the mean number of neutrophils per 5 high-powered fields were similar before and after intercourse in both groups. The presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells also did not change in the vaginal submucosa between visits 1 and 3 in either group data not shown.

What effects does sex have on the vagina

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